Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of community-acquired and healthcare associated infections. The introduction of new classes of antibiotics usually has been followed by the emergence of resistance in S. aureus. After the initial success of penicillin in treating S. aureus infections, penicillin-resistant S. aureus became a major threat in hospitals and nurseries in the 1950s, requiring the use of methicillin and related drugs for treatment of S. aureus infections. In the 1980s, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged and became widespread in many hospitals, leading to the increasing use of vancomycin. The first clinical isolated case of S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin was reported from Japan.
A survey performed by the Environmental Diagnostics Laboratory of Clearwater, FL reported that Staphylococcus aureus is also a part of an indoor environment’s bacterial flora. These bacteria are isolated both from air and surfaces during routine investigations of indoor environmental quality. They may be categorized as environmental or clinical based on their source. In either case, the existing environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, natural mutagens etc. play an important role in the survival and virulence of these microorganisms. For example, the remediation of existing microorganisms in an indoor environment often leaves behind a small portion of biological debris. Depending upon the viability and stress of the microorganisms, some of them may regenerate and multiply to become part of the existing micro flora of that environment. Therefore, continuous surveillance is essential to monitor these infectious particles from the health and hygiene point of view in and around closed structures (home, offices, etc.).
Antibiotics do not technically cause a resistance, but can allow it to happen by creating a situation where an already existing variant can flourish. More and more organisms develop resistance to more and more drugs. A patient can develop a drug-resistant infection either by contracting a resistant bug to begin with, or by having a resistant microbe emerge in the body once antibiotic treatment begins. Drug-resistant infections increase risk of death, and are often associated with prolonged hospital stays and complications. In order to study the bacterial resistance power against antibiotics it is necessary to have the knowledge of the genetic diversity of the microorganism and the environmental conditions apart from other physical and biological factors.
The MRSA infection is initiated on a host depending upon their exposure to the particular strain of the Staphylococcus aureus which is typically antibiotic resistant. The resistance of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, to antibiotics has become a concern around the world, in recent years. The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance may be the outcome of evolution as well as man made activities. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and other drugs is inevitable and MRSA is just one example of why it is important to understand the nature and existence of these disease-causing organisms. The management of controlling, spreading and prevention of MRSA related infections can be facilitated by knowing the existence of these entities in our surroundings.
A regular qualitative and quantitative microbiological evaluation of a building is recommended in order to know the existence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms (like MRSA) in various places including healthcare settings, work places, offices, residences, and other habitations.
The Environmental Diagnostics Laboratory (EDLab) at Pure Air Control Services performs a wide array of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) including organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Legionella pneumophila EDLab scientists identify microorganisms by using various lab techniques. Some common analysis performed by EDLab to identify microbial conditions include Bio-Scan and Spore Trap analysis, mycological culturable analysis of air/bulk/surface/swab/liquid environmental samples among many others. The type of sampling and analysis performed is determined by project specifications project requirements or individual needs.
For additional information you can contact Dr. Rajiv Sahay, Director, EDLab, Pure Air Control Services, www.pureaircontrols.com 1-800-422-7873 ext 303.
Alan Wozniak founded Pure Air Control Services, Inc. in 1984 as a small mechanical contracting firm. Today, the firm sets the industry standard for indoor environmental quality diagnosis and remediation.
Pure Air Control Services nationally performed IAQ services include: Building Sciences Evaluation; Building Health Check; an AIHA accredited Environmental Microbiology Laboratory; Environmental Project Management; and Mold Remediation Services, among other indoor environmental services.
The company’s expanding client roster includes the FAA, Walt Disney World, General Services Administration (GSA); Allstate Insurance; CBRE, Carrier Air Conditioning; NAVFAC, DOT, USACE, US Army, and many other Fortune 500 companies, school boards, and city, state, and county governments, making Pure Air Control Services the reliable industry leader.
For more information on Pure Air Control Services, Inc. please contact Alan Wozniak or Cy Garner at (800) 422-7873 ext 802 or 804 respectively, or visit www.pureaircontrols.com.
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